商务写作指南:易混淆词汇辨析1

发布时间: 2012-11-22 14:18   来源:
关键词: 英语
1.affect vs effect
两个“影响”辨析


Affect and effect are two words that are commonly confused. Affect is usually a verb (action); effect is usually a noun (thing).
Affect和effect这两个词语经常被混淆。Affect通常用作动词,表示某种行为,而effect常用作名词,表示某事。


Hint: If it's something you're going to do, use "affect." If it's something you've already done, use "effect."
提示:如果某事是你正打算要去做的,那么用affect;如果某事是你已经做完了的,那么就用effect。


To affect something or someone.
“影响”某事或某人


Example 1: The noise outside affected my performance.
例1:外面的噪音影响了我的发挥。


Example 2: Staying away so long from office will affect promotion.
例2:长期离职会影响晋级。


The use of "effect" as a verb is what causes the most confusion between these two words.
effect用作动词时,最容易和affect造成混淆。


To have an effect on something or someone.
对某事或某人有“影响”


Note: effect is followed by the preposition on and preceded by an article (an, the)
注意:effect前面一般要有冠词a/the,effect后面通常要加介词on。


Example 1: His smile had a strange effect on me.
例1:他的笑容对我有一种奇怪的影响。


Example 2: Parents worry about the effect of music on their adolescent's behavior.
例2:家长们担心音乐对于其青少年子女行为的影响。


2.some time / sometime vs sometimes
一段时间、某时和有时的辨析


Some time means a period of time.
Some time表示一段时间。


Example 1: The government still has sufficient instruments and still some time to move on this question.
例1:政府仍然有足够的工具和时间来应对这个问题。


Example 2: I think Jenny and I need some time right now anyway.
例2:反正我和珍妮需要一点时间。


Sometime indicates a time in the future or the past which is not known or not stated.
Sometime表示未来或者过去的某个时间,而这个时间目前还未知或者没有表述清楚。


Example 1: They hoped to meet up sometime.
例1:他们希望能找个时间见个面。


Example 2: The sales figures won't be released until sometime next month.
例2:销售数据要到下个月的某个时候才会公布。


Sometimes means on some occasions but not always or often.
Sometimes指的是有时,但并不经常,表示频率。


Example 1: During the summer, my skin sometimes gets greasy.
例1:夏天我的皮肤有时会变得爱出油。


Example 2: I differed with my partner sometimes,but we usually agree.
例2:我有时与我的伙伴争论,但我们通常是一致的。


3.e.g vs i.e“
例如”和“也就是”的辨析


e.g. stands for exempli gratia = for example.
e.g.是拉丁语exempli gratia的简写,表示“例如”,用于举例说明。


Example: "I like fast cars, e.g. Ferrari and Porche".
例句:我喜欢跑车,比如法拉利和保时捷。


In the sentence above you are simply giving an example of the kinds of cars you like - Ferraris and Porches.
在上述例句中,e.g.后要加你喜欢的车子的类型,即法拉利和保时捷。


i.e. stands for id est = that is (in explanation).
i.e.是拉丁语id est的简写,表示“也就是、即”的意思,用于解释说明。


Example: "I like fast cars, i.e. any car that can go over 150mph."
例句:我喜欢跑车,也就是时速超过150英里的车子。


In this second sentence you are giving an explanation of what you consider to be fast.
在第二句例句中,i.e.后是对跑车的说明,即你认为的跑车是多快的车子。


  


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